SQL Quick Reference

SQL Statement Syntax
SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE condition

AND|OR condition

ALTER TABLE table_nameADD column_name datatype


ALTER TABLE table_name

DROP COLUMN column_name

AS (alias) SELECT column_name AS column_aliasFROM table_nameorSELECT column_name

FROM table_name  AS table_alias

BETWEEN SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name

BETWEEN value1 AND value2

CREATE TABLE CREATE TABLE table_name(column_name1 data_type,

column_name2 data_type,

column_name2 data_type,


CREATE INDEX CREATE INDEX index_nameON table_name (column_name)orCREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name

ON table_name (column_name)

CREATE VIEW CREATE VIEW view_name ASSELECT column_name(s)FROM table_name

WHERE condition

DELETE DELETE FROM table_nameWHERE some_column=some_valueorDELETE FROM table_name

(Note: Deletes the entire table!!)

DELETE * FROM table_name

(Note: Deletes the entire table!!)

DROP INDEX DROP INDEX table_name.index_name (SQL Server)DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name (MS Access)DROP INDEX index_name (DB2/Oracle)

ALTER TABLE table_name

DROP INDEX index_name (MySQL)

EXISTS IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE id = ?)BEGIN–do what needs to be done if exists




–do what needs to be done if not


GROUP BY SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name operator value

GROUP BY column_name

HAVING SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name operator value

GROUP BY column_name

HAVING aggregate_function(column_name) operator value

IN SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name

IN (value1,value2,..)

INSERT INTO INSERT INTO table_nameVALUES (value1, value2, value3,….)orINSERT INTO table_name

(column1, column2, column3,…)

VALUES (value1, value2, value3,….)

INNER JOIN SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_name1INNER JOIN table_name2

ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name

LEFT JOIN SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_name1LEFT JOIN table_name2

ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name

RIGHT JOIN SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_name1RIGHT JOIN table_name2

ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name

FULL JOIN SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_name1FULL JOIN table_name2

ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name

LIKE SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name LIKE pattern
ORDER BY SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameORDER BY column_name [ASC|DESC]
SELECT SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_name
SELECT * SELECT *FROM table_name
SELECT INTO SELECT *INTO new_table_name [IN externaldatabase]FROM old_table_nameor

SELECT column_name(s)

INTO new_table_name [IN externaldatabase]

FROM old_table_name

SELECT TOP SELECT TOP number|percent column_name(s)FROM table_name
UNION SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name1UNIONSELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name2
UNION ALL SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name1UNION ALLSELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name2
UPDATE UPDATE table_nameSET column1=value, column2=value,…WHERE some_column=some_value
WHERE SELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name operator value



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Posted by on December 17, 2014 in Documents of software testing


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Compatibility Testing

Compatibility Testing

What is compatibility testing?

In computer world, compatibility is to check whether your software is capable of running on different hardware, operating systems, applications , network environments or mobile devices.

Compatibility Testing is a type of the Non-functional testing

Types of compatibility tests


Types of compatibility tests

Let’s look into compatibility testing types

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Levels of Software Testing

Levels of Software Testing

Levels of Software Testing



Unit Testing is a level of the software testing process where individual units/components of a software/system are tested. The purpose is to validate that each unit of the software performs as designed.

Integration Testing is a level of the software testing process where individual units are combined and tested as a group. The purpose of this level of testing is to expose faults in the interaction between integrated units.

System Testing is a level of the software testing process where a complete, integrated system/software is tested. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the system’s compliance with the specified requirements.

Acceptance Testing is a level of the software testing process where a system is tested for acceptability. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the system’s compliance with the business requirements and assess whether it is acceptable for delivery.

Note: Some tend to include Regression Testing as a separate level of software testing but that is a misconception. Regression Testing is, in fact, just a type of testing that can be performed at any of the four main levels.

There are different levels during the process of Testing. In this chapter a brief description is provided about these levels.

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Basic reasons to automation testing.

Why to we required Automation testing?

Reusing the test scripts:

  • When you want to execute the regression test scripts after every build it makes more sense to automate them. In case of testing web based application there is a more need to automate as the test suite has to be run on various browsers like Internet Explorer, Firefox and other browsers.

Saves time:

  • Running unattended automated test scripts saves human time as well as machine time than executing scripts manually.

Better use of resource:

  • While automated scripts are running unattended on machines, testers can do more useful tasks.

Cost Saving:

  • On test engagements requiring a lot of regression testing, usage of automated testing reduces the people count and time requirement to complete the engagement and helps reduce the costs.

To Automate or Not to Automate?

  • It is not always advantageous to automate test cases. There are times when manual testing may be more appropriate.
  • For instance, if the application’s user interface will change considerably in the near future, then any automation would need to be rewritten. Also, sometimes there simply is not enough time to build test automation. For the short term, manual testing may be more effective. If an application has a very tight deadline, there is currently no test automation available, and it’s imperative that the testing get done within that time frame, then manual testing is the best solution.

Decide What Test Cases to Automate

  • Repetitive tests that run for multiple builds.
  • Tests that tend to cause human error.
  • Tests that require multiple data sets.
  • Frequently used functionality that introduces high risk conditions.
  • Tests those are impossible to perform manually.
  • Tests that run on several different hardware or software platforms and configurations.
  • Tests that take a lot of effort and time when manual testing.

Create Automated Tests that are Resistant to Changes in the UI

  • Automated tests created with scripts or keyword tests are dependent on the application under test.
  • The user interface of the application may change between builds, especially in the early stages. These changes may affect the test results, or your automated tests may no longer work with future versions of the application.
  • The problem is automated testing tools use a series of properties to identify and locate an object.
  • Sometimes a testing tool relies on location coordinates to find the object. For instance, if the location has changed, the automated test will no longer be able to find the object when it runs and will fail.
  • To run the automated test successfully, you may need to replace old names with new ones in the entire project, before running the test against the new version of the application.
  • However, if you provide unique names for your controls, it makes your automated tests resistant to these UI changes and ensures that your automated tests work without having to make changes to the test itself.
  • This also eliminates the automated testing tool from relying on location coordinates to find the control, which is less stable and breaks easily.
  • However, automation has specific advantages for improving the long-term efficiency of a software team’s testing processes.

Test automation supports:

  • Frequent regression testing
  • Rapid feedback to developers during the development process
  • Virtually unlimited iterations of test case execution
  • Customized reporting of application defects
  • Disciplined documentation of test cases
  • Finding defects missed by manual testing

Automated tests should be

Concise: Test should be as simple as possible and no simpler.

Self Checking: Test should report its results such that no human interpretation is necessary.

Repeatable: Test can be run repeatedly without human intervention.

Robust: Test produces same result now and forever. Tests are not affected by changes in the external                            environment.

Sufficient: Tests verify all the requirements of the software being tested.

Necessary: Everything in each test contributes to the specification of desired behavior.

Clear: Every statement is easy to understand.

Efficient: Tests run in a reasonable amount of time.

Specific: Each test failure points to a specific piece of broken functionality (e.g. each test case tests one                        possible point of failure).

Independent: Each test can be run by itself or in a suite with an arbitrary set of other tests in any order.

Maintainable: Tests should be easy to modify and extend.

Traceable: Tests should be traceable to the requirements; requirements should be traceable to the tests.

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Posted by on September 14, 2013 in Documents of software testing


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For Better Understanding

Defect Management Process

Defect management process

  • Defect Prevention  – Implementation of techniques, methodology and standard processes to reduce the risk of defects.
  •  Deliverable Baseline  – Establishment of milestones where deliverable will be considered complete and ready for further development work.  When a deliverable is base lined, any further changes are controlled.  Errors in a deliverable are not considered defects until after the deliverable is base lined.
  •  Defect Discovery  – Identification and reporting of defects for development team acknowledgment.  A defect is only termed discovered when it has been documented and acknowledged as a valid defect by the development team member(s) responsible for the component(s) in error.
  •  Defect Resolution  – Work by the development team to prioritize, schedule and fix a defect, and document the resolution.  This also includes notification back to the tester to ensure that the resolution is verified.
  •  Process Improvement — Identification and analysis of the process in which a defect originated to identify ways to improve the process to prevent future occurrences of similar defects.  Also the validation process that should have identified the defect earlier is analyzed to determine ways to strengthen that process.
  •  Management Reporting  – Analysis and reporting of defect information to assist management with risk management, process improvement and project management.

Verification and Validation detail image

verification and validation detail image

Validation(FDA): Establishing documented evidence which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific                            process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specifications and                                 quality attributes. Contrast with data validation.

Validation, Verification, and Testing (NIST): Used as an entity to define a procedure of review, analysis, and                                                                       testing throughout the software life cycle to discover errors,                                                                            determine functionality, and ensure the production of quality                                                                            software.

Verification, Software (NBS): In general the demonstration of consistency, completeness, and correctness of                                              the software at each stage and between each stage of the development life                                                      cycle. See: validation, software.

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Posted by on September 14, 2013 in Documents of software testing


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Test Plan

Android testing has several approaches:

- Test Android implementations: it’s the object of CTS

- Test mobile application: it’s the object of this document

To complete these tests, the user can use tools:

- CTS has automated the test plan

- This document proposes a test plan manually ran but during the event different solutions to partially automate these tests will be tested

1. Introduction

CTS are designed to test Android implementations.

This test plan is designed to test Android mobile applications. The test cases are intended to be ran manually. But some parts can be automated with specific tools.

2. Pre-Tests

This section provides general tests about launching the application.

2.1. Is the application launched successfully? Yes/No

2.2. Once launched, does the application gain control?


2.3. Does the installation of your application not interfere with the pre-installed applications?

Yes /No

2.4. Can you come back to the application main menu screen in less than 3 seconds?


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Posted by on September 29, 2012 in Documents of software testing


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Improve Your Communication skills

Today we have many communications problem. So, I surfing some sites & to collect some data.

Here I published the some surfing’s collections for to improve your communications skills.
Please give me your true response if you have like or dislike.

Let’s Begin to Improve Your Communication Skills.

Improve Your Communication Skills

We all have people with whom we have to work to get things done.  Our ability to communicate with clients, customers, subordinates, peers, and superiors can enhance our effectiveness or sabotage us.  Many times, our verbal skills make the difference.  Here are 10 ways to increase your verbal efficacy at work:

  1. Develop your voice – A high whiney voice is not perceived to be one of authority.  In fact, a high soft voice can make you sound like prey to an aggressive co-worker who is out to make his/her career at the expense of anyone else.   Begin doing exercises to lower the pitch of your voice.  Here is one to start:  Sing — but do it an octave lower on all your favorite songs.  Practice this and, after a period of time, your voice will begin to lower.
  2. Slow down – People will perceive you as nervous and unsure of yourself if you talk fast.  However, be careful not to slow down to the point where people begin to finish your sentences just to help you finish.
  3. Animate your voice – Avoid a monotone.  Use dynamics.  Your pitch should raise and lower.  Your volume should be soft and loud.  Listen to your local TV news anchor; take notes.
  4. Enunciate your words – Speak clearly.  Don’t mumble.  If people are always saying, “huh,” to you, you are mumbling.
  5. Use appropriate volume – Use a volume that is appropriate for the setting.  Speak more softly when you are alone and close.  Speak louder when you are speaking to larger groups or across larger spaces.
  6. Pronounce your words correctly – People will judge your competency through your vocabulary.  If you aren’t sure how to say a word, don’t use it.
  7. Use the right words – If you’re not sure of the meaning of a word, don’t use it.  Start a program of learning a new word a day.  Use it sometime in your conversations during the day.
  8. Make eye contact – I know a person who is very competent in her job.  However, when she speaks to individuals or groups, she does so with her eyes shut.  When she opens them periodically, she stares off in a direction away from the listener.  She is perceived as incompetent by those with whom she consults.  One technique to help with this is to consciously look into one of the listener’s eyes and then move to the other.  Going back and forth between the two (and I hope they only have two) makes your eyes appear to sparkle.  Another trick is to imagine a letter “T” on the listener’s face with the cross bar being an imaginary line across the eye brows and the vertical line coming down the center of the nose.  Keep your eyes scanning that “T” zone.
  9. Use gestures – Make your whole body talk.  Use smaller gestures for individuals and small groups.  The gestures should get larger as the group that one is addressing increases in size.
  10. Don’t send mixed messages – Make your words, gestures, facial expressions, tone, and message match.  Disciplining an employee while smiling sends a mixed message and, therefore, is ineffective.  If you have to deliver a negative message, make your words, facial expressions, and tone match the message.

Improving your communication skills will improve your productivity.

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Posted by on September 26, 2012 in Documents of software testing


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