Definitions of Black-box and White-box Testing

05 Jun

Black-box: This testing methodology looks at what are the

available inputs for an application and what the expected outputs are that should result from each input. It is not
concerned with the inner workings of the application, the process that the application undertakes to achieve a
particular output or any other internal aspect of the application that may be involved in the transformation of an
input into an output. Most black-box testing tools employ either coordinate based interaction with the applications graphical user interface (GUI) or image recognition. An example of a black-box system would be a search engine.You enter text that you want to search for in the search bar, press “Search” and results are returned to you. In such a case, you do not know or see the specific process that is being employed to obtain your search results, you simply see that you provide an input – a search term – and you receive an output – your search results.

White-box: This testing methodology looks under the covers and into the subsystem of an application. Whereas black-box testing concerns itself exclusively with the inputs and outputs of an application, white-box testing enables you to see what is happening inside the application. Whitebox testing provides a degree of sophistication that is not available with black-box testing as the tester is able to refer to and interact with the objects that comprise an application rather than only having access to the user interface. An example of a white-box system would be in-circuit testing where someone is looking at the interconnections between
each component and verifying that each internal connection is working properly. Another example from a
different field might be an auto-mechanic who looks at the inner-workings of a car to ensure that all of the individual parts are working correctly to ensure the car drives properly. The main difference between black-box and white-box testing is the areas on which they choose to focus. In simplest terms, black-box testing is focused on results. If an action is taken and it produces the desired result then the process that was actually used to achieve that outcome is irrelevant. White-box testing, on the other hand, is concerned with the details. It focuses on the internal workings of a system and only when all avenues have been tested and the sum of an application’s parts can be shown to be contributing to the whole is testing complete.

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