Interview Questions and Answers

Q. What is Sanity Test (or) Build test?
Ans. Verifying the critical (important) functionality of the software on new build to decide whether to carry further testing or not.

Q. What is the difference between client-server testing and web based testing
This type of testing usually done for 2 tier applications (usually developed for LAN)
Here we will be having front-end and backend.
This is done for 3 tier applications (developed for Internet / intranet / xtranet)
Here we will be having Browser, web server and DB server.

Q. What is Dynamic Testing?
Ans. It is the testing done by executing the code or program with various input values and output is verified.

Q. What is GUI Testing?
Ans. GUI or Graphical user interface testing is the process of testing software user interface against the provided requirements/mockups/HTML designs.

Q. What is Formal Testing?
Ans. Software verification carried out by following test plan, testing procedures and proper documentation with an approval from customer

Q. What is Risk Based Testing?
Ans. Identifying the critical functionality in the system then deciding the orders in which these functionality to be tested and applying testing.

Q. What is Early Testing?
Ans. Conducting testing as soon as possible in development life cycle to find defects at early stages of SDLC.
Early testing is helpful to reduce the cost of fixing defects at later stages of STLC.

Q. What is Exhaustive Testing?
Ans. Testing functionality with all valid, invalid inputs and preconditions is called exhaustive testing.

Q. What is Defect Clustering?
Ans. Any small module or functionality may contain more number of defects – concentrate more testing on these functionality.

Q. What is Pesticide Paradox?
Ans. If prepared test cases are not finding defects, add/revise test cases to find more defects.

Q. What is Static Testing?
Ans. Manual verification of the code without executing the program is called as static testing. In this process issues are identified in code by checking code, requirement and design documents.

Q. What is Positive Testing?
Ans. Testing conducted on the application to determine if system works. Basically known as “test to pass” approach.

Q. What is Negative Testing?
Ans. Testing Software with negative approach to check if system is not “showing error when not supposed to” and “not showing error when supposed to”.

Q. What is End-to-End Testing?
Ans. Testing the overall functionality of the system including the data integration among all the modules is called end to end testing.

Q. What is Exploratory Testing?
Ans. Exploring the application, understanding the functionality, adding (or) modifying existing test cases for better testing is called exploratory testing.

Q. What is Monkey Testing
Ans. Testing conducted on a application without any plan and carried out with tests here and there to find any system crash with an intention of finding tricky defects is called monkey testing.

Q. What is Non-functionality Testing?
Ans. Validating various non functional aspects of the system such as user interfaces, user friendliness security, compatibility, Load, Stress and Performance etc is called non functional testing.

Q. What is Usability Testing?
Ans. Checking how easily the end users are able to understand and operate the application is called Usability Testing.

Q. What is Security Testing
Ans. Validating whether all security conditions are properly implemented in the software (or) not is called security testing.

Q. What is Performance Testing?
Ans. Process of measuring various efficiency characteristics of a system such as response time, through put, load stress transactions per minutes transaction mix.

Q. What is Load Testing?
Ans. Analyzing functional and performance behavior of the application under various conditions is called Load Testing.

Q. What is Stress Testing?
Ans. Checking the application behavior under stress conditions
Reducing the system resources and keeping the load as constant checking how does the application is behaving is called stress testing.

Q. What is Process?
Ans. A process is set of a practices performed to achieve a give purpose; it may include tools, methods, materials and or people.

Q. What is Software Configuration Management?
Ans. The process of identifying, Organizing and controlling changes to software development and maintenance.
A methodology to control and manage a software development project

Q. What is Testing Process / Life Cycle?
Ans. Write Test Plan
Test Scenarios
Test Cases
Executing Test Cases
Test Results
Defect Reporting
Defect Tracking
Defect Closing
Test Release

Q. What is full form of CMMI?
Ans. Capability Maturity Model Integration

Q. What is Code Walk Through?
Ans. Informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques.

Q. What is Unit Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of single programs, modules or unit of code.

Q. What is Integration Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of related programs, Modules (or) Unit of code.
Partitions of the system ready for testing with other partitions of the system.

Q. What is System Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of entire computer system across all modules. This kind of testing can include functional and structural testing.

Q. What is Alpha Testing?
Ans. Testing of whole computer system before rolling out to the UAT.

Q. What is User Acceptance Testing (UAT)?
Ans. Testing of computer system by client to verify if it adhered to the provided requirements.

Q. What is Test Plan?
Ans. A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of testing activities. It identifies test items, features to be tested, testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.

Q. What is Test Scenario?
Ans. Identify all the possible areas to be tested (or) what to be tested.

Q. What is ECP (Equivalence Class Partition)?
Ans. It is method for deriving test cases.

Q. What is a Defect?
Ans. Any flaw imperfection in a software work product.
Expected result is not matching with the application actual result.

Q. What is Severity?
Ans. It defines the important of defect with respect to functional point of view i.e. how critical is defect with respective to the application.

Q. What is Priority?
Ans. It indicates the importance or urgency of fixing a defect

Q. What is Re-Testing?
Ans. Retesting the application to verify whether defects have been fixed or not.

Q. What is Regression Testing?
Ans. Verifying existing functional and non functional area after making changes to the part of the software or addition of new features.

Q. What is Recovery Testing?
Ans. Checking if the system is able to handle some unexpected unpredictable situations is called recovery testing.

Q. What is Globalization Testing?
Ans. Process of verifying software whether it can be run independent of its geographical and cultural environment. Checking if the application is having features of setting and changing language, date, format and currency if it is designed for global users.

Q. What is Localization Testing?
Ans. Verifying of globalized application for a particular locality of users, cultural and geographical conditions.

Q. What is Installation Testing?
Ans. Checking if we are able to install the software successfully (or) not as per the guidelines given in installation document is called installation testing.

Q. What is Un-installation Testing?
Ans. Checking if we are able to uninstall the software from the system successfully (or) not is called Uninstallation Testing

Q. What is Compatibility Testing?
Ans. Checking if the application is compatible to different software and hardware environment or not is called compatibility testing.

Q. What is Test Strategy?
Ans. It is a part of test plan describing how testing is carried out for the project and what testing types needs to be performed on the application.

Q. What is Test Case?
Ans. A Test case is a set of preconditions steps to be followed with input data and expected behavior to validate a functionality of a system.

Q. What is Business Validation Test Case?
Ans. A test case is prepared to check business condition or business requirement is called business validation test case.

Q. What is a Good Test Case?
Ans. A Test case that have high priority of catching defects in called a good test case.

Q. What is Use Case Testing?
Ans. Validating a software to confirm whether it is developed as per the use cases or not is called use case testing.

Q. What is Defect Age?
Ans. The time gap between date of detection & date of closure of a defect.

Q. What is Showstopper Defect?
Ans. A defect which is not permitting to continue further testing is called Showstopper Defect

Q. What is Test Closure?
Ans. It is the last phase of the STLC, where the management prepares various test summary reports that explains the complete statistics of the project based on the testing carried out.

Q. What is Bucket Testing?
Ans. Bucket testing is also know as A/B testing. It is mostly used to study the impact of the various product designs in website metrics. Two simultaneous versions are run on a single or set of web pages to measure the difference in click rates, interface and traffic.

Q. What is What is Entry Criteria and Exit Criteria Software Testing?
Ans. The Entry Criteria is the process that must be present when a system begins, like,
SRS – Software
Use Case
Test Case
Test Plan
The Exit criteria ensures whether testing is completed and the application is ready for release, like,
Test Summary Report,
Defect Analysis Report.

Q. What is Concurrency Testing?
Ans. This is a multiple user testing to access the application at the same time to verify effect on code, module or DB. mainly used to identify locking and deadlocking situations in the code.

Q. What is Web Application Testing?
Ans. Web application testing is done on a website to check – load, performance, security, Functionality, Interface, Compatibility and other usability related issues.

Q. What is Unit Testing?
Ans. Unit testing is done to check whether the individual modules of the source code are working properly or not.

Q. What is Interface Testing
Ans. Interface testing is done to check whether the individual modules are communicating properly as per specifications. Interface testing is mostly used to test the user interface of GUI applications.

Q. What is Gamma Testing
Ans. Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements, this testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

Q. What is Test Harness?
Ans. Test Harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, which involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.
The benefits of Testing Harness are: Productivity increase due to process automation and increase in product quality

Q. What is Scalability Testing?
Ans. It is used to check whether the functionality and performance of a system, whether system is capable to meet the volume and size changes as per the requirements
Scalability testing is done using load test by changing various software, hardware configurations and testing environment.

Q. What is Fuzz Testing?
Ans. Fuzz testing is a black box testing technique which uses a random bad data to attack a program to check if anything breaks in the application.

Q. What is Difference between QA, QC and testing?
Ans. QA?
It is process oriented
Aim is to prevent defects in an application QC?
Set of activities used to evaluate a developed work product
It is product oriented
Executing and verifying application with the intention of finding defects

Q. What is Date Driven Testing?
Ans. It is Automation testing process in which application is tested with multiple set of data with different preconditions as an input to the script.
Interview Questions On Test Automation

1) What is Automation?

General definition: Manual Process to mechanized process

Software Industry definition: Automation is a Microsoft technology that makes it possible to access software objects inside one application from other applications. These objects can be created and manipulated using a scripting or programming language such as VBScript or VC++. Automation enables you to control the functionality of an application programmatically.

2) What is Test Automation?

Automating Software Test process using Test Tools

3) What is Test Tool?

Test tool is software application it performs test operations based on user instructions.

4) What are the disadvantages of Manual Testing?
i) Huge Amount of Human Resources as well as Environment (Test lab)
ii) Time taking process
iii) Less Accuracy
iv) Tiredness

5) What are the advantages of Test Automation?

i) Fast: Tools are faster in execution than human users
ii) Reliable: Tools are reliable in complex calculations and tasks
iii) Reusable: we can reuse Automated Tests on multiple versions of Software (Ex: Sanity Tests, Regression Tests)
iv) Repeatable: we can repeat same operations with multiple sets of Test Data (Ex: Data driven Tests)
v) Programmable: we can use flow control statements for applying logic (Scope of Automated Tests is very high than Manual Test Cases)
vi) Comprehensive: we can execute series of Tests without human interaction (Ex: Batch Testing)

6) What are the drawbacks of Test Automation?

i) Test design requires lot of efforts
ii) 100% test automation impractical
iii) All types of testing not possible (Ex: Usability)
iv) Debugging issues
v) Tools may have their own defects

7) What is Vendor tool and give examples?

Companies develop tools, license is required to use and get technical support.

HP-WinRunner, QTP, LR, QC
IBM-Rational- Rational Robot, RFT, RPT, QA Director
Micro-SilkTest, Silk Performer

8) What is Open source Tool and give example?

Source code available on Internet anybody can download and use.

Ex: Selenium, Jmeter, Bugzilla, QAwebload etc…

9) What is In-house tool?
Some companies develop tools for their internal use.

Microsoft, Oracle Corporation and IBM developed so many tools for their internal use.

10) Give some examples for Functional & Regression Test Tools?

HP- QuickTest Professional (QTP)
IBM- Rational Functional Tester (RFT)
Micro Focus- Silk Test
Test Complete
Test Partner
Selenium (Open Source)

11) Give some examples for Performance Test Tools?
IBM-Rational Performance Tester (RPT)
Micro Focus- Silk Performer

JMeter (Open Source)

12) Give some examples for Test management Tools?
HP- Quality Center / ALM
Rational QA Director

13) Give some examples for Defect Management Tools?

14) What is the deference between Automation tools and Management tools?

Automation tools interact with software applications, Test management tools don’t interact with software applications.

Test management tools only for documentation and generation reports where as Automation tools execute our software applications.

15)What is Functional Testing?

Testing based on an analysis of the specification of the functionality of a component or system.

16) What is Regression Testing?

Testing of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software, as a result of the changes made. It is performed when the software or its environment is changed.

17) What are different coverages in Function Testing?
Verifying the Functionality (external behavior) of a component or System

i) Input Domain Coverage

Verifying weather the system is accepting valid inputs or not? And preventing invalid inputs or not

ii) Output Domain Coverage

Verifying weather the System is providing correct Outputs or not, based on input and process

iii) Database Testing

Verifying the data validations, data storage and data retrieval operations

iv) Error handling

Verifying how the system is handling user unathurized/invalid operations and providing error and help messages.

v) Order of functionalities
Verifying weather the System is providing correct order of functionalities or not

18) What are the important operations in Database Testing?
Data Integrity,
Data Manipulations,
Data Comparisons,
Data Retrieval,
Data back-up and recovery operations etc…

19) What is Functional and Regression Testing?

20) Who uses QTP Tool?

HP- QuickTest Professional is an Industry leading Functional & Regression Test tool and it supports advanced keyword driven test approach.

Automatio Testers and End users use QTP Tool

21) What type of Scenarios can be automated?
Tests that we have to execute on every build (Sanity Tests)
Tests that we have to execute on every modified build (Regression Tests)
Tests that we have to execute with multiple sets of test data (Data driven Tests)

22) What type of Scenarios can’t be automated?
Tests that require human user observation
Tests that requires one time execution

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